Garlic is a native of Southern Europe and a popular bulb crop cultivated throughout Asia. It is used as spice in many dishes. It has excellent medicinal properties. It is a rich source of Protein, Phosphorus, Potassium etc. It helps in digestion; also it reduces cholesterol in human blood.
Major Garlic producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Haryana.
Soil Type :-
● It can be cultivated on various soil types. It gives best results when grown in sandy loam and silt loam soils rich in organic matter.
● Loose and sandy soils are not suitable for cultivation as bulbs produced in such soil are deformed with less keeping quality.
● pH of soil should be 6 to 7.
● Ooty 1, Singapore red, Rajali, Tabiti, Cerole, Madrasii .
Field Preparation :-
Give three to four deep ploughing and bring soil to fine tilth. Add well decomposed cow dung to increase organic content of soil. Then levelled soil and divided it into small plots and channels.
● Sowing Time
Optimum time for sowing is the last week of September to the first week of October.
Keep spacing of 7.5 cm between two plants and 15 cm between the rows.
● Sowing Depth
Sow garlic cloves 3 to 5 cm deep keeping their growing heads upward.
● Method of sowing
For sowing garlic use the Kera method. Sowing can be done manually or with the help of Machine. Cover cloves with soil and provide light irrigation.
Seed Rate :-
● Use seed rate of 225 – 250 kg per acre.
Seed Treatment :-
● Seed treatment with Thiram@2 gm/kg of seed + Benomyl 50WP@1 gm/litre water effectively controls damping off and smoothed diseases.
● After chemical treatment, seed treatment with bio agent Trichoderma viride@2 gm/kg of seed is recommended, it helps in reducing early seedling diseases and soil borne inoculum.
● During last ploughing incorporate 50 t/ha of FYM; Apply Azospirillum 2 kg and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha, 40:75:75 kg/ha NPK, 50 MgSO4 and 1 ton neem cake as basal and N 35 kg/ha at 45 days after planting .
Weed Management :-
● Initially garlic seedlings grow slowly. So it is better to use chemical herbicides than hand weeding to avoid injury.
● To control weeds take spray of Pendimethalin@1 Lit/200 Lit water/acre within 72 hours of sowing.
● Apply Oxyfluorfen @425ml/200Ltr of water per acre as post emergence herbicide 7 days after planting.
● Two to three weeding is recommended for weed control.
● First hand weeding should be done one month after sowing and second hand weeding to be done one month after first hand weeding.
Water Management :-
● Depending upon climatic conditions and soil type decide irrigation amount and frequency. ● Apply first irrigation immediately after sowing then depending upon need apply irrigation with interval of 10-15days .
Plant Protection :-
Thrips can be controlled by spraying Methyl demeton 25 EC 1 ml/lit.
● Nematodes can be controlled by the application of Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg a.i./ha 30 days after planting.
● Clove rot
Before planting treat the cloves with Carbendazim 2 g/kg.
● Crop becomes ready in 135-150 days after sowing. Crop can be harvested when 50% leaves start yellowing and drying.
● Stop irrigation at least 15 days before harvesting. Plants are pulled out or uprooted, then tied into small bundles and kept in the field or shade for 2-3days.
● After proper drying, dry stalks are removed and bulbs are cleaned.
● After harvesting and proper drying, bulbs are sorted and graded according to size.
● 8 – 12 t/ha