The edible fungus is generally known as Mushroom. It is a fleshy, spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. Like other fungi, it does not contain chlorophyll and has to depend on food prepared by another organism for nutrition. Therefore, it grows alone on dead organisms or in symbiosis with other organisms.
Nutrition Value of Mushrooms :-
● Mushrooms contain more protein than fruits & vegetables and, Mushrooms can also be low in cholesterol.
● Also an excellent source of iron, potassium, and potassium along with folic acid, a component known for improving the blood and avoidance deficiencies.
● Mushrooms are recommended as healthy food by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Mushroom Cultivation in India.
Before making to start mushroom farming, decision following Factors have to be Considered to become successful in the commercial mushroom production business :
1. The mushroom farm should be closer to the house of the farmer for successful Participation and monitoring purposes.
2. Availability of lots of water on the farm
3. Easy accessibility to raw materials at competitive prices in the region
4. Simple access to labour at more affordable prices.
5. Availability of power at competitive prices, as electricity is a significant input in mushroom cultivation.
6. The farm should be from industrial pollutants such as chemical fumes.
7. There should be a provision for sewage disposal.
8. There should be provision for future growth in the farm.
Types of Mushrooms :-
● There are four types of mushrooms cultivated in India.
1. White Button Mushroom
2. Portobello Mushroom
3. Dhingri (Oyster) Mushroom
4. Paddy Straw Mushroom
● Among all the above, White Button mushroom has high demand and is the most popular hence most farmers select this variety for commercial mushroom farming.
● The average price for white button mushrooms is between 50-100 rs per kg.
Button Mushroom Cultivation Process
● The cultivation of button mushroom “Agaricus bisporus” species is chosen because, Regarding production, it comes first place in the world.
● In India, the favorable season for mushroom cultivation is October to march. ● The cultivation Procedure has five main steps.
1. Mushroom Spawn
2. preparing of compost
3. Spawning of mulch
5. Cropping and harvest administration.
Mushroom Spawn :-
● The mushroom growing process starts from Spawn preparation
● Spawn is planting material for mushroom cultivation. That is, it is a seed of a mushroom. The mushroom spawn preparation required greater technical skill & investment; mostly, mushroom spawn produces large institutes.
● Mushroom grower import spawn from the renowned source.
● Good Qualities mushroom spawn has the following qualities .
1. The spawn should Be rapidly growing in the compost.
2. Provide early pruning following casing.
3. High yielding.
4. It must create a greater grade of mushroom.
Preparing of Compost:-
● Compost is an artificially prepared growth medium from which mushrooms can derive essential nutrients necessary for growth.
● There are two primary methods for compost preparation:
1. Longer Method
2. Short Method
● The short Method takes less time to prepare compost than the longer method but requires more capital and resources. The compost made by the short method is suitable for high-yielding mushroom production.
The seeds are a mix of compost. Before seeding, wash the utensils used in seeding and seeding in 2% formalin solution and wash the hands of the person working in the seedling with soap to avoid any infection.
After this, add seed to 0.5 to 0.75 percent, that is, 100 kg G 500-750 grams of seeds are sufficient for ready compost.
● The importance of casing soil would be to keep the moisture content and exchange of pollutants inside the top layer of the compost, which assists in the correct development of the mycelium. ● The pH of this casing soil should be 7.5-7.8 and have to be free of any disease.
● Maintain temperature and humidity in a mushroom grow room.
● The casing soil is stacked on the cemented ground and can be treated with a 4% formalin solution.
● The ground’s rotation is completed, and it’s covered with a polythene sheet for another 3-4 days.
● Pasteurization of shell soil at 65°C for 6-8 hours is shown to be a lot more successful.
● 3-4 cm thick coating of casing soil has been spread thickly on the compost once the surface was coated with white mycelium of this fungus.
● Formalin solution (0.5%) is subsequently being sprayed.
● Appropriate ventilation ought to be organized together with water being sprayed a couple of times every day.
Harvesting of Crop:-
● Mushroom Pinhead initiation starts after 10-12 days, and the mushroom crop is harvested in 50-60 days.
● Harvest Mushrooms by light twisting without bothering the casing soil and When the harvesting is finished, fill the gap on beds with fresh, sterilized casing material and spray water.
● The crop should be harvested before the gills are available because this might diminish its quality and market worth.
● Generally, the longer method of composting 14-18 kg mushroom produces & 18 – 20 kg mushroom produced from the short method from 1000 kg compost.
● Harvested mushrooms softly wash with 5g. KMS solution in ten litter water.
● After washing, remove excess water and pack these mushrooms in the polythene bag.