● Black gram is one of the most important pulses of India. It is also known as “Urad” in India.
● It is used as a nutritive fodder for milch cattle.
● Its deep root system and foliage cover competes with weed effectively and controls soil erosion.
● It has 13% of total pulses area and 10% of total pulses production in India.
● This crop is mainly grown for its protein rich seeds.
Black bean is a food crop cultivated in the Kumaon region in Uttaranchal and Northern India and in the bordering states and countries of Himalayas.
Soil Type :-
● Black gram can be grown on a variety of soils ranging from sandy soils to heavy cotton soils. ● The most ideal soil is a well drained loam with pH of 6.5 to 7.8.
● Black gram cannot be grown on alkaline and saline soils.
● Land is prepared like any other kharif season pulse crop.
Commercial Varieties :-
● LBG-20,T-9, Uttara, LBG-623, KU-91-2, Vamban 2, Azad Urid-2, KU-3-1, WBG-26, WBU-108, TU-94 2,ADT-5, Azad-1, Azad-3, M-391,DU-1, IPU 2-43, Mash 114, Mash-479, WBU-109,PU-31, PU-40, Sekhar-1,2,3.
Land Preparation :-
● The field should be selected where black gram has not been sown in the previous years. ● This is done to avoid volunteer plants which cause admixture.
● The fields that are already cultivated with black bean gram will harbour root rot and wilt pathogen.
● Ploughing should be done in summer with 2-3 harrowing in the pre-monsoon for kharif season. ● The land should be well leveled.5-6 tons of FYM or compost should be mixed at last harrowing.
Seed Selection :-
● The seeds used for sowing should be purchased from an authorized source.
● Seeds should be naturally pure and should have a fine quality.
● Seeds used for sowing should be effective for a good field stand.
● Seeds should be checked thoroughly and should be free from insects, pests and diseases.
Time of Sowing :-
● Second Half of June (15-30th June) is the perfect time for sowing the seeds.
● Sowing should start from the third week of Feb to First week of April in summer.
Sowing depth :-
● The Black Gram seeds are sown @ 2 cm depth with a spacing of 10 cm and 30 cm between rows in the main field.
● Sowing should be done in line sowingdrilling method with tractor drawn ferti-cum-seed drill or by bullock drawn ferticum-seed drill/tifan.
● Ferti-cum-seed drill should be used for the application of fertilizers and seed sowing at a time.
Seed Rate & Spacing:-
● In kharif season, seed rate is 12-15kg / ha and spacing required is 30×10 cm. ● In Summer season, seed rate is 20-25kg / ha and spacing required is 20-25×10 cm.
Seed Treatment :-
● Seed treating fungicide should be used to reduce infection which is caused by fungal pathogens in the soil.
● Seeds should be treated with Bavistin & Thiram at 2.5 g/kg seed.
● For atmospheric N fixation rhizobium culture should be adapted.
Fertilizer Management :-
● 20:40:20 NPK kg/ha along with 20 kg S/ha greatly increases yield of pulses and also benefits the succeeding crop.
● Boron and Molybdenum give better results in acid soil.
● Foliar spray of 2% DAP and 2% KCl at the Pre-flowering stage enhances the yield.
Weed Management :-
● Weeding operation is done by the labour by hand weeding.
● Weeding can be controlled by spray fluchloralin 1.5 It/ha or pendimethalin 2.0 It/ha as preemergence 3 DAS (days after sowing) followed by one hand weeding 30 DAS (days after sowing).
● Based on the intensity of weeds you can plan for chemical control or hand weeding.
Water Management ;-
● The pulse crops in Rabi and Pre Rabi seasons are mostly grown in residual soil moisture condition.
● However irrigation should be provided at critical growth stages i.e. flowering and pod development stage.
Plant Protection :-
● The major diseases are yellow mosaic in northern plains and powdery mildew in southern and south-eastern regions (in rabi).To control insect and pest, yellow mosaic virus, application of Phorate in soil before or at sowing @1 kg/ha is required.
● Pod borer – spray Triazophos/ Monocrotophos @ 2ml/ ltr of water, Carbaryl@ 2 kg/ha Aphids Spray methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha.White fly -Spray the crop with Imidacloprid @ 1 ml/3.5 litres of water/Flonicamid-200gm/Ha.
● The plants are harvested when 80% of the pods are matured and the plants are stacked for a few days before threshing.
● The crop comes to maturity at 80-95 DAS (days after sowing).
● Upon ripening, black gram pods turn from green to yellow and then to black.
● In the case of the irrigated crops, ripened pods can be collected in one or two pickings.
● If all plants mature at the same time, then plants are cut down and spread on the threshing fields to dry.
● The plants will dry and become black and pods start splitting.
● The plants are then beaten using sticks and separate seeds from pods followed by winnowing to remove debris.
● Yield in Rainfed Area : 600 – 700 kg/ha
● Yield in Irrigated Area : 1000 – 1300 kg/ha
● Yield in Rice Follows Area : 500 kg/ha