Scientific Name: Solanum lycopersicum.
Family: Solanaceae.
Chromosome Number: 2n = 26.

Cultivated tomatoes apparently originated as wild forms in the Peru-Ecuador-Bolivia area of the Andes.

1. Released by IARI : Pusa Rohini, Pusa Sadabahar, Pusa Hybrid 8, Pusa Hybrid 4, Pusa Uphar, Pusa Hybrid 2, Sioux
2. Released by IIHR : Arka Vikas, Arka Saurabh, Arka Meghali, Arka Ahuti, Arka Ashish, Arka Abha, Arka Alok, Arka Vishal, Arka Vardan, Arka Shreshta, Arka Abhijit
3. Released by PAU : Pb. Kesari, Punjab Chhuhara, S-12, Sel-152, PAU-2372 ,
4. Released by GBPUAT, Pantnagar : Pant T-10, AC-238, Pant T-3
5. Others : H-24, H-86, Pusa Early Dwarf, CO-3, CO-1, BT-12,

• Optimum temperature for seed germination is 26°C to 32°C
• The optimum temperature required for its cultivation is 15°C- 27°C. At higher temperature its blossoms drops off. The damages great when high temp is combined with dry wind. It will result in the failure of fruit set due to drying of stigmatic liquid.
• Colour development: In tomato red colour is due the pigment Lycopene. Lycopene is highest at 18°C to 26°C while production of this pigment drops off rapidly above 30°C and ‘nil’ above 40°C
• Carothe is developed rapidly at high temperature.

• Well drained sandy loam soil with high level of organic contents is best suitable for tomato cultivation.
• Soils with high acidity are not suitable for tomato cultivation.
• Well-drained, sandy or red loam soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.0-7.0 are considered as ideal.

Seed rate and spacing
A – Higher Region (1100 Metres above MSL)
Seed Rate (Kg/ha)No. of plants/Ha Spacing (cms) Row x Plant
0.5 or 26,000 to 27,000 60 x 60
0.2 or 17,000 to 17,500 90 x 60
B – Lower Region(Above 1100 Metres M.S.L)
Seed Rate (Kg/ha)No. of plants/Ha Spacing (cms) Row x Plant
0.5 or 25,000 to 26,000 60 x 60
0.2 or 16,500 to 17,000 90 x 60

Season of Planting
• Seeds are sown in June July for autumn winter crop and for spring summer crop seeds are sown in November. In the hills seed is sown in March April.

• Tomato seeds are sown on nursery beds to raise seedlings for transplanting in the field.
• Raised beds of size 3 x 0.6 m and 10-15 cm in height are prepared.
• About 70 cm distance is kept between two beds to carry out operations of watering, weeding, etc. The surface of beds should be smooth and well levelled.
• Add sieved FYM and fine sand on the seedbed. Raised beds are necessary to avoid problem of water logging in heavy soils.
• In sandy soils, however, sowing can be taken up in flat beds. To avoid mortality of seedlings due to damping off, drench the seed bed first with water and then with Bavistin (15-20 g/10 litres of water).

Method of Planting
• Seedlings are transplanted in furrows in light soils and on side of the ridges in case of heavy soils.
• A pre-soaking irrigation is given 3-4 days prior to transplanting. Before planting seedlings should be dipped in a solution prepared by Nuvacron (15ml) and Dithane M – 45 (25g) in 10 litres of water for 5-6 minutes.
• Transplanting should preferably be done in the evening.

• Due to the tall habit and heaving bearing nature of the hybrids staking is essential. Staking facilitates intercultural operations and helps in maintaining the quality of the fruits. It is done 2-3 weeks after transplanting. Staking can be done either by wooden stakes or laying overhead wires to which individual plant is tied. In case of indeterminate types, two or three wires are stretched parallel to each other along the row and plants are tied to these wires.

• Tomato is very sensitive to water application.
• Heavy irrigation provided after a long spell of drought causes cracking of the fruits. Hence it should be avoided.
• Light irrigation should be given 3-4 days after transplanting. Irrigation intervals should be according to soil type and rainfall, irrigation should be given 7-8 days interval during kharif, during rabi 10-12 days and 5-6 days during summer.
• Flowering and fruit development are the critical stages of tomato therefore; water stress should not be given during this period.

Manuring & Fertilization
• The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil and amount of organic manure applied to the crop. For a good yield, 15-20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYM is incorporated into the soil.
• Generally, application of 120 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O per hectare is recommended for getting optimum yield. Half dose of N and full dose of P and K is given at the time of planting. The balance half of N is given as top dressing 30 days after transplanting.
• For hybrid varieties, the recommended dose per hectare is 180 kg N, 100 kg P2 O5 and 60 kg K2 O. 60 kg N and half of P & K are given at the time of transplanting.
• Remaining quantities of P & K and 60 kg N is top dressed 30 after transplanting. A third dose of 60 kg N is applied 50 days after transplanting.

• Dark green colour – Dark green colour is changed and a reddish pink shade is observed on fruit. Fruits to be shipped are harvested at this stage. Such fruits are then sprayed with ethylene 48 hours prior to shipping. Immature green tomatoes will ripen poorly and be of low quality. A simple way to determine maturity is to slice the tomato with a sharp knife. If seeds are cut, the fruit is too immature for harvest and will not ripen properly.
• Breaker stage – Dim pink colour observed on ¼ part of the fruit. Fruits are harvested at this stage to ensure the best quality. Such fruit are less prone to damage during shipment often fetch a higher price than less mature tomatoes.
• Pink stage – Pink colour observed on ¾ part of the fruit.
• Reddish pink- Fruits are stiff and nearly whole fruit turns reddish pink. Fruits for local sale are harvested at this stage.
• Fully riped – Fruits are fully riped and soft having dark red colour. Such fruits are used for processing.

• The yield per hectare varies greatly according to variety and season. On an average, the yield varies from 20-25 t/ha. Hybrid varieties may yield upto 50-60 t/ha.

Rangana Naveen Sai

By Rangana Naveen Sai

I am Rangana Naveen Sai, pursuing B.Sc (Hons) Agriculture final year at Lovely Professional University. I am quick learner, hard working and good at communication skills.

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