Common Name :Papaya
Botanical name: Carica papaya
Family : Caricaceae
Proximate composition of papaya fruit.
Moisture (%) :90
Protein (g/100g) :0.5-1.5
Fat (g/100g) :0.08 -0.10
Carbohydrate (%) :8-9.5
Variety red lady has the duration of about 2 years. Early vigorous,high yielding and potential yield of 120 tons/ha in 2 years productive life cycle. One tree can produce 50 to 120 fruits with average fruit weight of 1.5 to 2kg/fruit. Semi-dwarf begins to bear fruit at 50-80 cm. Excellent fruit quality, thick, firm, red flesh, aromatic, very sweet with13-14% sugar content. Female plants produce short oblong fruits while bi-sexual or hermaphrodites are elongated. Highly tolerant to papaya ring spot virus. Early maturing harvestable at 8 to 9 months from sowing.
A high fertile soil with good drainage is most desirable for successful papaya cultivation. The plant grows well in sandy loam soil having PH between 6.5 to 7.
Papaya grows well in sun, warm & humid climate. The plant can be grown to elevation of 1000 m above the sea level but can’t withstand frost. Ideal temperature for papaya is between 25 to 30 degree centigrade. Temp. bellow 10 degree centigrade inhibits growth, maturity and ripening of fruits. Dry climate during flowering often causes sterility, while dry climate during fruit maturity adds to the sweetness of fruit.
Papaya is generally grown from seeds. Papaya seeds have a tendency to loss their viability very fast within 60-90 days. Being cross pollinated, the plants raised from seed may have a mixed heritance with wide variability. Freshly extracted seed show low germination due to presence of sarcotesta which act as inhibitor. The seed are cleaned with saw dust or ash of cattle dung to remove the mucilaginous coating and dried in shade.
Seedling management :
Papaya seedling raised in polythene bags stands after transplanting better than those raise in seedbeds. Seedling can be raised in perforated polythene bags of 20 cm x 15cm size of 150 to 200 gauge filled with equal proportion (1:1:1) of top soil, FYM and sand. Germination takes place within 10 to 20 days after sowing depending upon the prevailing temp. Seeds are sown in 1 cm depth. Generally the seedling become ready for transplanting in about 45 to 60 days.
Planting season :
Sept.-Oct. planting is generally done in the region where rainfall is heavy and virus problem is acute in rainy season. During monsoon season (June-July) planting of seedling can be done in tilla land.
Pits of 45cm X 45cm X45 cm sizes are to be made at required distance which should be filled with top soil alongwith 20 kg of FYM and 1 Kg neemcake. Two seedlings (Dioecious var.) should be planted in each pit and single seedling planting for Gynodioecious line (var.) followed by light irrigation mixed with Captan @2 gm per lit water…
The planting density depends on the number of factors like cultivars to be grown, soil type and the rainfall pattern of the locality.
Spacing- 2m X 2m for tall variety = 2500 plants/hac
1.5m x 1.5m for dwarf variety=4400 plants/hac
Removal of unwanted plants :
With proper management and care the papaya plants start flowering 4-7 months after planting. At flowering stage, excess plants are to be removed keeping only one plant in each pit and maintaining a female male plant ratio of 10 1 in case of dioecious line.
The papaya crop is very heavy feeder. The following doses of nutrients per fruiting season per plant is required as below-
i)FYM -10 kg
ii)Neem cake -1 kg
Urea -1 kg
SSP -1 kg
The inorganic fertilizers should be given in six split doses (once in two months) during vegetative growth and flowering stage. For better growth of fruit 1 or 2 spraying of ZnSO4 @ 5gm/lit water and Borax @ 1 gm/lit water during vegetative growth and flowering stage.
Protective irrigation is required in the first year of planting. In the second year when the plants are laden with fruits, irrigation at 10 days interval in winter and at 5 days interval in summer is needed till harvesting of fruits.
Crop maintenance :
1. Weed control – Eliminate weeds as they compete for nutrients, light and water and can harbor pest and also vector of diseases.
2 Bud removing -Auxiliary shoots or buds have to be cut off as they absorb nutrients.
3 Shedding of leaves – Older leaves should be eliminated, they can act as host for pest and diseases.
4.Fruit removing – When 2-3 fruits grow in the same pedicel, it is recommended to keep only one fruit. Care should be taken while removing the extra fruits in the pedicel.
5 Support – Staking should be provided when the bearing is more and heavy.
6 Fruit growth and harvesting – The fruits take 130 -165 days to reach maturity depending on cultivar and prevailing temp. during the course of fruit development. The fruit should be harvested individually by hand picking.
Pest and diseases:
1. Damping off – Causes rotting of seedling in the nursery.
Control: Before sowing the seeds should be treated with fungal culture of Trichoderma viride (3-4gm/kg seed) or Captan (3gm/kg seed) to protect the newly emerging seedlings.
Drenching the seedling with Ridomil MZ or Carzate @ 1ml/lit water or Bavistin @2gm/lit water gives good protection.
2. Collar rot and stem rot:
Water logging and bad drainages are the major contributing factors for this disease. The leaves from top side one found drooping yellowing and then they fall off. Rotting of plants and tree trunks ultimately fall down.
Control Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan @ 2gm/kg of seed. Application of Trichoderma viride (15gm/plant) mixed with FYM should be applied around the root zone at the time of planting. Drenching the soil with Ridomil MZ or Carbendazim @ 1gm/lit water or bordeaux mixture (1%) or Blitox (3gm/litre) gives good protection at 10-15 days interval.
Causal organism- Colletotrichum spp.
It affects the leaves, flowers and fruits as a result they fall off prematurely. It can be managed by spraying Carbendazim @ 1gm/lit water or Difolton @ 2gm/lit water.
4.Leaf curl of papaya :
The disease is transmitted by the vector white fly.
Curling,crinkling and deformation of the leaves is the symptom. apart from curling the leaves exhibit vein clearing and thickening of the veins. The affected plants show a stunted growth.
Control Spray of metasystox (2 ml/litre) or Nuvacron (0.5 ml/litre) or Confidor (1.5 ml/litre) or Triazophos (1.5 ml/litre) to prevent the vector. 6. Leaf blight (Corynespora cassiicola): The disease first appear as small discoloured lesions which are irregularly scattered on the leaves.
Control Disease can be controlled by spraying of Dithane M-45 starting from the appearance of the symptoms.
Act as vectors pests of papaya ring spot virus and mosaic. Spray the systemic insecticides
2.Root knot nematodes:The symptoms are the yellowing and then shedding of leaves, premature fruit drop, root galling and finally death of the plant
Application of 2 ton/ha of neem cake before planting reduce the incidence.
POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
Fruits are graded on the basis of their weight, size and colour.
Fruits are highly perishable in nature. They can be stored for a period of 1-3 weeks at a temperature of 10-130 C and 85-90% relative humidity.
Bamboo baskets with banana leaves as lining material are used for carrying the produce from farm to local market.
Road transport by trucks/lorries is the most convenient mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market.
The farmers usually dispose off their produce to the wholesalers and middlemen at the farm gate.
B 2 B = 10 – 15/ kg
B 2 C = 30- 40/kg
COST BENEFICIAL ANALYSIS:
Seedlings: 12 Rs/plant (approx), (1210plants ×Rs12 =14,520Rs).
Labour: 300 for one female; 500 for one male, (required days only)
Land preparation : 1000/hour
Pits: 2 men’s (1000/day) × 3Days
Irrigation : Drips
Fertilizers : About 10,000Rs
Pest and disease control : 15,000Rs
Post harvest practices : 1500Rs
if we cultivate one acre of area,then 43560sq.ft ÷36 feet’s (spacing is 6×6) = 1210 plants.
Average production per plant is about 40kgs.
For B2B : if per kg price is 15Rs.then 1210×40kgs= 48400kgs
So 48400kgs × 15Rs = 7,26,000Rs/acre.
For B2C : if the price is 30Rs,then 1210×40= 48400kgs.
So 48400kgs×30Rs= 14,52,000Rs/Acre.
If the over all Expenditure is about 2Lakhs approx,then net income is 14,56,000-2,00,000=12,56,000Rs.(For B2C).
If it is B2B,then 7,26,000-2,00,000= 5,26,000Rs.