Scientific Name: Psidium guajava.
Family: Myrtaceae.
Chromosome Number: 2n=44.

Guava Varieties
Some of the popular varieties include:
• Lucknow 49 (the most popular variety, also called ‘Sardar’ guava).
• Allahabad Safeda.
• Apple color.
• Pear Shaped.
• Behat Coconut.
• Safeda Jam (hybrid: Allahabad Safeda X Kohir).
• Kohir Safeda (hybrid: Kohir X Allahabad Safeda).
• Arka Mridula (soft-seeded).
• Arka Amulya (soft-seeded).
• Banarasi.
• Chittidar.
• Baruipur Local .
• White-fleshed variety is a great choice for making juice.

Climate Required
Guava farming is possible in both subtropical and tropical climes. It can reach a maximum height of 5000 feet (1500 metres) above sea level. Guava blossoms best in the months of June to September, when the annual rainfall is less than 1000 mm. Because young plants are more susceptible to cold and dry environments, they require more care.

Soil Required
Guava is a hardy plant that thrives in a variety of soil conditions. It thrives on heavy soils that are well-drained. It is, nevertheless, susceptible to waterlogging. Because guava is surface-rooted, the best soil is well-drained, deep friable soil with rich topsoil.
The soil should have a fertile surface. Its pH ranges from 4.5 to 8.2. Guavas cannot be grown on alkaline or saline soils.

Time of Sowing
February-March or August-September month is optimum time for planting of Guava.

For planting use spacing of 6×5 m. Use of planting distance of 7m, then in square system, 132 plants can be accommodating in one acre.

Sowing Depth
Roots should be sown at the depth of 25 cm.

Methods of sowing
Direct sowing.
Transplanting method.
Rootstock raising.

Land Preparation and Planting
Meanwhile the land should be prepared during the dry days by ploughing, leveling, and weeding. Dig pits measuring 1mx1mx1m before monsoon begins. Fill each hole with farmyard manure @ 25 Kg, SSP@500 gram, Neem Cake @15 Kg, Lindane powder@ 50 gram together with soil for needed fertilization as well as avoid termite invasion. Showing needs to be done during Aug – September for optimal result. (February and March is also chosen for planting). Maintain a sowing dept of 25-30 cm.

Irrigation Requirement
The guava tree does not require much watering. Guava plants in their early stages require 8-10 irrigations per year.
Dry locations and light soils may require hand watering during the summer. Between May and July, full-grown and fruit-bearing trees require weekly watering.
Fruit drop is reduced and fruit size is increased with winter watering. The guava crop benefits greatly from drip irrigation. It saves up to 60% of water and increases the number and size of fruits significantly.
To keep moisture in the soil following pre-monsoon showers, make a saucer-shaped, half-moon, or V-shaped basins.

Inorganic fertilizers and organic manure are quite beneficial for guava cultivation. Every year, give your plants 100 grams of nitrogen, 40 grams of phosphorus, and 40 grams of potassium. In the sixth year, you should be able to maintain your current level of stability. In August and January, divide them into two equal portions.
Spray the trees with 0.34 kg slaked lime and 0.45 kg ZnSO4 (Zinc Sulfate) dissolved in 16 gallons (72.74 l) water if the trees are deficient in zinc. Determine how many sprays to use based on the degree of the deficit.
Apply pre-flowering sprays of 0.3 percent ZnSO4 and 0.4 percent Boric Acid to your guava crop to boost fruit size and yield.

Weed management
Manual weeding is better. Mulching twice a year discourages weeds and conserves moisture. Spray of Gramoxone is effective in weed management.
Plow soil twice a year (once in October, next in January) for effective management of guava orchards.

Pest & Diseases
• Scale insect: In Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Maharashtra, there is a serious problem. These flat, green insects that seem like scales cling to plants, stems, and fruits. Spray a mixture of fish oil rosin soap, methyl demeton, and dimetholate in a crude oil emulsion or water.
• Guava fruit fly: A dangerous pest that induces fruit dropping. Pluck and burn the infested fruits. Spray 0.5 ml phosphamidon and 2 ml malathion per liter of water.
• Mealybug: These tiny oval-shaped insects sucking sap from young plants have a white waxy surface. Underneath the leaves, in bunches. They have a significant impact on yield. Dimethoate, methyl parathion, or monocroptophos can be sprayed. Thimet, malation, or aldrin can be used to treat soil. Block the upward movement of nymphs on plants by covering the plant base with polythene fabric.
o Guava wilt: A serious fungal disease that causes yellowing of leaves, followed by drying, wilting, and dying. More serious in alkaline soils and during
monsoon. Remove dry and wilted parts. Drench with Brasicol at trunk base. Spray Bavistin at earliest infection stage. Injections of 8-Quinolonol Sulfate is effective.
o Anthracnose: Causes spots on leaves and fruits. Remove affected parts. Spray Dithane, Oxychloride, or Difolatan. To control this disease in postharvest fruits, dip them in Aureofungin and Thiabendazole solutions.
o Fruit canker: It decreases market value of fruits, as the disease disfigures them. Dip harvested fruits in Ocimum sanctum leaf extract. Or wash them with 1200 ppm Aureofungin. Spray 0.2% Dithane Z-78, 0.3% Difolatan, and 1% Bordeaux mixture.
o Stem canker: Infected stems crack and produce lesions. Stem tissues collapse and the twigs wilt.
o Cercospora leaf spot: The affected leaves develop water-soaked brown patches. Spray 0.3% Copper Oxychloride or lime sulphur at 1:30 ratio.
Bronzing is a nutritional disorder that happens due to deficiencies of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. It occurs because of poor soils or poor cultivation and management practices. Apply NPK, Zinc, and Boron in recommended doses.

Guava fruits should be picked as soon as they mature. The fruit is ready for harvest when its dark green color changes to light and shows yellowish green patches.
Hand picking is recommended.
Seedling trees take 4-5 years to reach the bearing stage, while layered, budded, and grafted trees take 2-3 years to bear.

• Grafted trees can yield up to 350 kg per tree, whereas seedling plants can yield up to 90 kg.
• In ideal conditions, a 3-year-old Lucknow 49 tree may produce somewhere between 55 and 60 kilograms.
• Yield varies by variety, cultivation tactics, location, and orchard management.
• Guava leaves can be used to treat toothaches, mouth ulcers, and inflamed gums at home.
• Guava contains pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and niacin (Vitamin B9), which aid to increase mental capacity. It increases flow of blood in brain and improves cognitive performance.
• Guava is an anti-aging fruit. It improves the appearance of the skin. It has astringent properties.
Post harvest management, storage and marketing
The fruits are highly perishable and should be marketed within two days of harvest. Over ripe fruits will not stand a long distance market. Some hormones like Mh, GA have been reported to increase self life of fruits. The fruits can be stored for four weeks in cold storage maintaining the temperatures 8 to 100C and relative humidity 80-90%.

Rangana Naveen Sai

By Rangana Naveen Sai

I am Rangana Naveen Sai, pursuing B.Sc (Hons) Agriculture final year at Lovely Professional University. I am quick learner, hard working and good at communication skills.

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