Chilli is a spicy fruit that is used in cooking. It is commonly used as an ingredient in meals to make them spicy. Indian chiles are famous for their pungency and colour, particularly those cultivated in Andhra Pradesh’s Guntur area. Some of the larger chilies are called bell peppers and are consumed as a vegetable. Chilli is known by several different names in India, including lanka, mirchi, and others.

According to the most recent data, India leads the world in chilli output, followed by China, Peru, Spain, and Mexico.

Soil Type
● Chillies require moisture to grow.
● It has been discovered that dark soil, which holds moisture, is good for rainfed crops.
● The crop requires well-drained sandy loam with a high organic content when watered.
● They may also be cultivated on deltaic soil with irrigation.

● K.1, K.2, CO.2, CO.4 (vegetable type), PKM 1, PMK 1 (for semi-dry conditions in Southern
Districts), PLR1 (for coastal regions of North – East Tamil Nadu) and KKM (Ch) 1. ● Hybrids – TNAU Chilli Hybrid CO 1

pH Requirement
● pH of soil should be between 6.5 and 7.5 (neutral soil). It cannot tolerate acidic nor alkaline soil.

Seed Rate
● Varieties: 1.0 kg / ha.
● Hybrids: 200 – 250 g / ha.
● Nursery area: 100 sq. m/ ha.

Seed Treatment
● Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg and sow in lines spaced at 10 cm in raised nursery beds and covered with sand.
● Watering with rose can has to be done daily.
● Drench the nursery with copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/l of water at 15 days interval against damping off disease. Apply Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m. at sowing.

● Prepare a nursery area of 3 cents with a 2% slanting slope for seedling production covering 1 hectare.
● Cover the nursery with a 50% shade net and the sides with a 40/50 mesh insect resistant nylon.
● Form elevated beds of 1 m width and suitable length and put HDPV pipes at 2m intervals for additional rainy-season protection with polythene covers.
● 300 kg sterilised cocopeat, 5 kg neem cake, and 1 kilogramme each Azospirillum and phosphobacteria One protay requires around 1.2 kilogramme of cocopeat to fill. 300 portrays (98 cells) are required to produce 29,000 seedlings for one hectare with a spacing of 90 x 60 x 45 cm in a paired row system.
● Sow the treated seed in protrays at a rate of one seed per cell.
● Cover the seed with cocopeat and stack the trays one on top of the other, covering with a polythene sheet until germination occurs.
● After 6 days, lay the portrays with germinated seedlings on the raised beds separately inside the shade net.

Land Preparation
● Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg / ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 40-45 days old seedlings, with the ball of earth on the ridges.

● 6-week-old seedlings are preferred for transplanting in the mainfield.
● Time: Kharif – July – Aug Rabi – Oct-Nov

Sowing Time
● May – June for rainfed
● Sept – Oct for irrigated crops.

Manure & Fertilizers
● Basal dose: FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 30:60:30 kg/ ha.
Potassium as K2SO4 for quality improvement. Application of potassium in the form of potassium sulphate will increase the quality of chilli.
● Top dressing: 30 kg N/ha in equal splits on 30, 60 and 90 days after planting.
● Basal dose: FYM 30 t / ha, NPK 30:80:80 kg / ha.
● Top dressing: 30 kg N / ha in equal splits on 30, 60 and 90 days after planting.

● For rainfed crop: 56x15cm @ one seedlings per hill
● For irrigated crop: 56×56 (or) 60x60cm (or) 90x60cm @ two seedlings / till Panting can also be done on bunds.

The intercrops like onion and coriander can be grown for getting additional income. It can also help to control the weed population.

Weed Management
● Spray Fluchloralin @ 1 lit a.i/ha or Pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i/ ha. or Oxyflourfen @ 0.15 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergence herbicide and may be combined with hand weeding once and earthing up 45 days after planting.

Water Management
● Regular irrigation is an important factor for the successful production of chilli crops.
● The first irrigation is given at the time of transplanting and the subsequent irrigations are given once in a week or 10 days depending on the weather and soil moisture condition.
● In light soils irrigation is given at 10-12 days intervals, in black cotton soils at 3 week intervals and in summer at 5 to 6 days interval. After every harvest irrigation is given.
● Flowering and fruit formation are the critical stages for moisture.
● Scheduling of irrigation is done at IW / CPE ratio of 0.6.

● The stage of maturity at which chillies are picked depends on the type and purpose for which they are grown. Flowering begins 40-60 DAT.
● First harvesting is done at the green stage to stimulate further flush of flowering and fruit set.
● Chillies used for drying are picked at fully ripened red stage and it takes another month for dry chillies.
● Thereafter ripe fruits are picked at intervals of 1-2 weeks and harvesting continues over a period of 3 months with 6-8 pickings depending on season, variety, and cultural practices.

Average Yield
● 10 to 15 q/ha dry pods – in rainfed conditions.
● 20-25 q/ha dry pods – in irrigated conditions.

● Chillies are sold in fresh condition soon after picking. Green chillies may be kept under good condition for about 40 days at 32ºF and 95% R.H. The dried chillies can be stored in dry places or warehouses or stores safely for 5 to 6 months or more when they are well protected from insect pests.

Rangana Naveen Sai

By Rangana Naveen Sai

I am Rangana Naveen Sai, pursuing B.Sc (Hons) Agriculture final year at Lovely Professional University. I am quick learner, hard working and good at communication skills.

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