The study of the life histories and general features of forest trees and crops, with a focus on environmental conditions, as the foundation for silviculture practice. It explains the natural rules that govern their growth and development, as well as their behavior in specific environments.
Forest crops are produced and cared for using the information gained in silvics. It covers the methods for getting natural regeneration under various silvicultural systems, artificial regeneration of diverse species, and ways for maintaining young crops, both natural and artificial, to assist them grow into forests with high quality timber and economic value.
Production of species of economic value
Many of the species found in virgin forests aren’t particularly valuable or useful. As a result, the production of timber from economically valuable species per unit area is minimal. It is vital to research and apply silviculture in order to generate only the required species if the woods are to yield timber of industrial and economic relevance.
Production of larger volume per unit area
The crop in virgin forests is usually either highly dense or relatively open. Both of these extremes are incompatible with large-scale production. When the crop is dense, the individual trees’ growth is hampered, resulting in lower timber volume production per unit area. On the other hand, if the crop is very open, there will be fewer trees and thus less volume per unit area. Aside from that, competition causes a huge proportion of trees to die before they reach maturity. They are not used in unmanaged forests, and that volume of timber is lost.
Production of quality timber
Due to severe competition in unmanaged forests, a huge percentage of trees become crooked, deformed, diseased, and faulty. As a result, the quality of the wood produced deteriorates. Knowledge in silviculture will be required to assure the production of high-quality timber, as the trees must be cultivated disease-free and without competition.
Reduction of rotation
Because of high competition in dense areas, the rate of growth of individual trees is slowed in virgin forests, resulting in a longer period for them to reach the size at which they may be exploited. This raises the cost of timber production. The density of the crop may be correctly regulated and, as a result, the pace of growth can be raised and rotation reduced with the knowledge and practical use of silviculture.
Raising forests in blank areas
Due to some unfavorable elements preventing tree growth, a vast number of sites in nature that are potentially appropriate for tree growth are periodically left vacant. Silvicultural techniques and abilities aid in the growth of forest in such regions.
Creation of manmade forests in place of natural forests
In natural forests, there may be places that do not regenerate or reproduce naturally, or where natural regeneration is extremely slow and uncertain. In such locations, it becomes necessary for the forester to take up nature’s task in his hands and plant manmade forests. Success in this endeavor can be achieved only when he has a good knowledge of the science and art of raising forest crops artificially.