1. Insufficient Water Supply:-
Water availability in India is more than sufficient to irrigate all cultivation areas; the problem is that we still have to find cheap and suitable solutions to utilize such enormous water supplies. Due to several reasons, farmers either don’t receive the appropriate amount of water or don’t get the supply on time; and many more.
2. Less Use of Modern Farming Equipment :-
In most areas, to date, farmers follow primitive cultivation methods; traditionally-used plough and relevant native accessories continue to be farmers’ preference. Despite no shortage of efficient equipment and machinery, there’s very little use of modern equipment, majorly because most farmers don’t have lands huge enough to use advanced instruments, heavy machinery.
3. Over Dependence on Traditional Crops :-
Indian farmers are growing rice and wheat for centuries now in several regions. The excessive production of the two grains, many times lead to the storage, sale problems and shortage of other farm products.
4. Poor Storage Facilities:-
In rural areas, storage facilities are either insufficient or completely absent. In such a situation, farmers usually have no other option than selling their produce immediately once it’s ready, at market prices that are often very low. They are far away from a legitimate income.
5. Transportation Problems:-
Lack of cheap, efficient means of transportation is a big problem widely seen in the Indian agriculture sector; small farmers still rely on bullock-carts for transporting their produce. Moreover, lakhs of villages are connected with highways and market centers with temporary (kutcha) roads that become muddy and useless in rains.
6. High Interest Rates:-
Thousands of farmers take their lives each year due to debt burden (having other indirect causes interlinked). Unreasonably-high interest rates should be declared illegal, and the government must take quick, strict, and appropriate action against greedy money lenders.
7. Government Schemes are yet to reach Small Farmers:-
In 2008, the government brought agricultural debt-waiver and debt-relief scheme in effect to benefit over 36 million farmers. The scheme also covered direct agricultural loan to stressed farmers. However, most of such welfare programs and subsidies announced by both the central and state governments are yet to reach poor farmers, while big/wealthy landlords are hugely benefited.