Biotechnology is an emerging field of research as it has the potential to solve many biological problems which have not been solved until now with the conventional techniques. Biotechnology extends its applications over a broad spectrum which includes medicines, agriculture, transgenic, genetic engineering, etc.
Here we will discuss biotechnology in agriculture.
Biotechnology in Agriculture:-
The large increase in the size of a population has led to an increasing demand for resources and basic requirements such as food, shelter, clothing, etc. Another impact of the increase in population is the exploitation of the land for crops production. Thus cultivation has been limited to a small area. In order to meet the demands with limited resources, we need to apply a great effort. Biotechnology in agriculture has changed the face of this condition.
Biotechnology is the use of technology to modify or manipulate any biological system or living system for the development or improvement of products for various purposes. It is widely employed in different fields and agriculture is one among them. Researchers have suggested different options for increasing food production. Genetically engineered crop-based agriculture is an option, others being agrochemical based agriculture and organic agriculture.
The green revolution was an initiation for increasing food production but it couldn’t meet the growing demands. Later the idea of crop variety improvement program was put forward. However, the agrochemicals seem to be unfeasible for farmers. In addition, the environmental issues related to them also reduced their use.
Agriculture is the science or practice of raising crops or rearing animals to produce products such as food, fiber, cooking oil
other items. Technology, including biotechnology, is an important part of agriculture. Agricultural biotechnology companies work to supply farmers with tools to increase the yield of plant and animal products, while lowering the costs of production.
Agricultural biotechnology can also include production of plants such as orchids for ornamental purposes and plants that can be used for fuel production (biofuels).
To accomplish these goals, biotechnologists develop products to protect animals and crops from disease and help farmers identify the best animals and seeds to use in selective breeding programs. For example, a dairy farmer might use genetic testing to identify cows that will be high milk producers, a commercial fish farm might raise fish like salmon, tilapia, or catfish. In the case of the fish far, if the fish were infected by certain viruses, the fish would die and the farm would lose money. To prevent infections, fish farmers use vaccines, developed through biotechnology.
Growing insects is a newer form of agriculture. Companies are using many kinds of technology such as vertical farming, sensors that monitor heat, humidity, and oxygen and computerized systems that monitor insect growth.