– Lack or insufficient rainfall (or precipitation): Droughts are caused mostly by this in most areas. An extended stretch of time without rain might cause an area to dry out. Farmers sow crops in anticipation of rain, therefore agricultural drought occurs when the rains fail and irrigation systems are not in place.
– Changes in climate: Droughts can be exacerbated by climate change, such as global warming. Global warming is likely to have a global impact. Scientists have demonstrated beyond a shadow of a doubt that human activities are the primary cause of rising greenhouse gas levels in the environment. Warmer temperatures have resulted from the growth in greenhouse gases. Dryness is a byproduct of warmer temperatures. Long-term droughts are exacerbated by this collection of circumstances.
– Human activities: Forests play an important role in the water cycle. They help to store water, reduce evaporation, and provide a significant amount of air moisture through transpiration. Cutting down trees will also reduce the ground’s ability to hold water, making desertification more likely. Watershed potential is also severely reduced by deforestation. Another human activity that contributes to droughts is over-farming. Over-farming loosens the soil, allowing for erosion. Soil erosion reduces the soil’s ability to hold water.
– Overexploitation of surface water resources: Surface water resources, such as rivers and streams, are abundant in certain locations, with watersheds and mountains as their sources. If the main sources of these surface water supplies are disrupted, they may dry up. Irrigation systems and hydroelectric dams are two examples of factors that lead to the overuse of surface water resources. They also cut off supply of water to downstream communities.
Harmful Effects of Droughts
– Economic Effects: Low yields equate to a significant loss of income, and farmers will be forced to spend large sums of money on irrigation and animal watering. A prolonged lack of rain means drier circumstances for businesses and industries that produce farm equipment.
– Environmental Effects:
Water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and ponds dry up, causing water animals to perish. Wildlife travels large distances in search of water, and soil moisture is essential for the breakdown of organic matter. Surface water bodies such as rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds have a huge impact on their quality and health.
– Social Effects: Our health is maintained by water. Droughts result in migration as well as psychological impacts such as stress, worry, and sadness.