Oil seeds crop is one of the most important cash crops grown in India. Oilseeds are the crops grown for oil extraction from their seeds. These are the very important component of semi tropical and tropical agriculture, providing easily available and highly nutritious human and animal food. Cash crops share about 6.87% to agricultural GDP whereas it shares 1.5% to agricultural GDP.
GROUNDNUT [Arachis hypogea]
Groundnut is the most important oilseed crop of India. its scientific name is Arachis hypogea. It belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the most important oil crop and oilseed crop cultivated and consumed in most important parts of the world. It is highly nutritious due to its high protein content (22-33%).
ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION:
Groundnut is native to Brazil; it is widely distributed throughout in the south America. At present groundnut is widely cultivated in almost all tropical and subtropical countries of the world. India is the largest producer of groundnut followed by China, USA, Sudan, Senegal, Nigeria, south Africa, Indonesia and Brazil. 70% of the area and 75% of the production are concentrated in the four states of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Soil and climate:
Groundnut does well in the well-drained, light texture, loose, friable and sandy and sandy loam soils which helps in easy penetration of pegs and their development with Ph of 6-7.5. it is sensitive to salinity.it requires a long and warm growing season. it grows well in areas with50 to 125cm of well distributed rainfall during growing season.
Groundnut is deep-rooted crop. One ploughing with soil turning followed by two harrowing would be sufficient to achieve a good surface tilth up to 12-18cm depth.
Bold and filled pods should be selected. For control of seed borne disease, treatment of groundnut with Thiram (3g/kg seeds) or Carbendazim (2g/kg) recommended. Sowing is undertaken with onset of monsoon. Seeds should be sown about 5cm deep with the help of seed drill or by sown behind plough with a spacing of 60 x 10cm (spreading type) and 45 x 10cm (bunch type). For seed purposes, pods should be shelled by hand 1 week before sowing time.
Spreading type (80-100kg/ha)
Bunching type (100-125kg/ha)
Groundnut being a rainy season crop, it does not require irrigation unless the dry spell period prolonged and irrigation facilities are available. Flowering, peg formation and pod development stages are critical for irrigation in groundnut. Generally, 600-650 mm of water is sufficient.
FYM or Compost: 10-12 t/ha, 25-30 days before sowing. NPK= 8-20:16-80:0-75 kg/ha as basal application. Ca: 200-400 kg/ha of gypsum at the peak flowering stage as side placement (Calcium is essential for good seed development) Introducing green manuring in crop rotation also helps in increasing the organic matter content of the soil and improving its structure. It also improves nodulation and enhances the availability of P to the crop.
It is essential to keep groundnut fields weed free up to 45 days after crop emergence. Application of pre-emergence herbicides such as pendimethalin @ 1.0 -1.5 kg a.i./ha as spray or fluchloralin @ 1.0 – 1.5 kg a.i./ha as pre-plant soil incorporation followed by 1-2 hand weeding, as and when needed.
EARTHING UP AND GYPSUM APPLICATION:
The earthing up should also be taken up simultaneously with interculture operations. Basic idea of earthing up is to promote easy penetration of pegs in soil as soil also to provide more area to spread. GYPSUM APPLICATION: Apply gypsum @ 400 kg/ha by the side of the plants on 40th to 70th day depending upon soil moisture. Apply gypsum, hoe and incorporate it in the soil and then earth up. Avoid gypsum in calciferous soils. Application of gypsum encourages pod formation and better filling up of the pods. Application of gypsum at the rate of 50 % basal both in rainfed and irrigated condition reduces Khadhasty, malady and pod scab.
The prominent symptoms of maturity are yellowing of foliage, spotting of leaves and dropping of old leaves. The pod is mature when it becomes hard and tough and when there is dark tint on the inner side of the cells. In case of bunch type of groundnut, the plants are harvested by pulling. Harvesting of spreading type of groundnut is done by local plough or with the help of blade harrow. Leave the harvested crop in small heaps for two to three days for curing and drying. Drying and storage of pods: The pods for storage must contain moisture less than 9 % and kernels 8 % as the higher moisture level in the produce are congenial for the production of aflatoxin causes for liver cancer in human body.
● 1500 to 2000 kg/ha -spreading type ● 1000 to 1500 kg/ha -bunch type ● Ratio of the kernels to pods is 70:30 (kernels and shell)