Fisheries refer to the raising or harvesting fish and other aquatic life and also the site where such an enterprise is set up.
Animal proteins are easily digestible and absorbable than plant proteins.
Biological Value (BV) is the term used to express the % of proteins assimilated from the total quantity of the protein consumed (B.V for rice – 68%, B.V for wheat – 65%, grams – 68%, eggs – 94%, fishes – 76%).
Indian fisheries and aquaculture plays important role in food production, providing nutritional security to the food basket. India constituting about 7.8% of the global fish production, the sector contributes to 1.1% of the GDP and 5.15% of the agricultural GDP.
Department of Fisheries of Central Government introduced Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) scheme to promote Fisheries production by investing 12,340 crore towards production activity and 7710 crores for logistical frame work. Freshwater Farms Development Agencies (FFDAs) and brackish water Fish Farms Development Agencies (FFDAs) are established for promoting freshwater and coastal aquaculture.
Fish and fish products have presently emerged as the largest group in agriculture exports of India, with 12.9 MT in terms of quantity and Rs.46,662 crores in value during 2019-20. This accounts for around 10% of the total export of the country and nearly 20% of the agricultural exports. More than 50 different types of fishes and shellfish products are exported to 75 countries around the world.
Fishes are used as food in poultry & cattle industries also besides human beings.
Vitamin A & D are abundant in fishes. Liver oil extracted from cod fishes and sardines has got medicinal value.
Nitrogen containing fish cake is used as manure for crops.
Fish glue is used in binding and carpentry works.
Isin glass, obtained from the air bladders of fishes is used in distilleries to purify beer and wine.
Shiny dust from the scales of the fish is used to manufacture artificial pearls.