Soil fertility can be defined as the ability of the soil to provide an atmosphere that is in favour of plant refers to the soil’s ability to support plant growth and maximize crop yield.This can be improved by applying organic and in organic fertilizers to the soil.Nuclear techniques provide information that improves soil fertility and crop production while reducing environmental impact
This includes providing the plant with the essential nutrients and a suitable chrmicals,a physical and biological environment that enhances and promote the growth of a plant .Fertile soil will typically have some organic matter that improves soil structure, moisture, retention,and nutrient retention as well as a PH between 6 and 7.Unfortunately many soils lack adequate levels of all essential plant nutrients or siol conditions are unfavourable for plant uptake of certain nutrients.
Soil fertility and plant nutrition focus on the management of essential elements taht are necessary for plant growth.soil fertility directly affects the quality as well as the quantity of the crop production affecting how it can be further used for human uses .A single element is also considered essential if it is required for plant metabolosim and the completion of the plants life cycle.
There are 17 essential elemnts that meet these criteria and are divided into macro and micro nutrients.this along with the composition of the plant,forms the biology and fertility of soils
Types of soil fertility
1.Inherent or Natural fertility
The soil that naturally contains some nutrients and is considered fertile is known as ingerent fertility .some of the nutrients like nitrogen,phosphorous and potassium are considered essential for the normal growth and yield of the crop.These are naturally present in naturally fertile soil.The inherent fertility has a limiting factor from which fertility is not decreased.
2.Acquired fertility
When the fertilty of the soil is developed through external agents like manures and fertilisers,tillage,irrigation etc it is known as acquired has been found that the yield does not increase after a point by the application of an additional quantity of fertilisers. Thus tjis become the limiting factor of acquired fertility.
Importance of soil fertility
Soil starts the chain of the food cycle where in it feeds the plant which ultimately feed us.they are the primary organisms of the food chain.with the improvement of soil ,there will be a gradual increase in the quality of plant and crop production as well .some of the essential aspects of soil fertility are described below
* soil provides direct nutrition and a fiundation for plants it is considered the most important factor in determining plant growth
*soil is a result of the accumulation of decomposing plant and animal matter with the ageing parent material .As this soil breaks down,these elements are released in the form of nutrients that are directly available to the growing plant
How to increase the soil fertility?
There are a few ways in which one can increase soil fertilty or replenish the nutrients removed from the soil.some of these are mentioned below
1.Recycling nutrients – this can be done by the use of plant and animal waste
2. Use of fertilisers
3.Through microbial action – this includes the use of nitrogen fixation which can be acheived through the use of grain legume that intiates bilogical nitrogen fixation.this can also be done by other methods like fertilisers,green manures,etc
4.Incorporating cover crops -using cover crops can add organic matter to the soil improving soil fertility and making it healthy for plant production

Vemula Lavanya

By Vemula Lavanya


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