Soil Conservation Means it is the preservation or conserving soil against deterioration and loss by using it within its capabilities, and applying the conservation practices needed for its protection and improvement. More specially, soil conservation consists of using the land within the limits of economic practicability while safeguarding it against impoverishment or depletion by ero-sion, deposition, exhaustion of plant nutrients(through leaching, excessive copping or overgrazing). accumulation of toxic salts, burning, water log-gig (adequate drainage), improper cultivation or any type of improper use or failure to protect the land from soil or impairment of productive-ness.
The fundamental principles of soil conservation are ( Land use based on its capability
(1. Conservation of soil and moisture to avoid damage to the soil,
2. Use of best soil crop management practices, correction of acidity,
alkalinity and drainage etc.
land Capability Classification
The first requisite to conservation of land is to fit the crop to the capabilities of the soil and the water availability Lands are mainly used for agriculture, pastures and forestry.
The capability of land to grow crops de-ends on the nature and properties of soils.
On the basis of capability or limitations, the lands are grouped into two major groups ie
(*) Lands suitable for cultivation: Such lands are used for agriculture or cultivation of crops so the land has four classes.
These four classes e differentiated on the basis of limitations.
These limitations are
(A) Erosion may be water erosion or wind erosion denoted by ‘e’.
(B) Climate by (c)
(C) water characteristics by (w) due to excess water, drainage problem
(D) Soil IS) : low water holding capacity or low plant nutrient content of soil.
(*) Lands not suitable for cultivation: Such lands has also four classes which all are not capable of supporting cultivation of crops. These are used for growing grasses, forestry and supporting wild life.
Soil conservation is proven to increase the quality and quantity of crop yields over the long term because it keeps topsoil in its place and preserves the long term productivity of the soil.