Definition:MANURES may be defined as material which are organic in nature and produced from plant,Animal and Other organic waste and by products.They release nutrients after their decomposition.Capable of supplying plant nutrients and improving soil physical Environment having no definite chemical composition with low analytic value.
Manure derived from
FRENCH WORD: Manoeuvrer Which refers to Work with soil
LATIN WORD:Manuren means work with hand.
So in a general way,manure is a substance containing plant nutrients.Later the organics were specifically called MANURES and inorganic were called FERTILIZER.
*Manures supply plant nutrients including micro- nutrients.
*They improve soil physical properties like Structure,water holding capacity etc.
*Increase nutrient availability.
*Carbon dioxide released during decomposition.
*Provide food for soil micro organisms.
*Plant parasitic nematodes and fungi are controlled.
*Prevent loss of nutrients by leaching or erosion.
On the basis of concentration of nutrients,manures can be groped into two-
1)Bulky organic manures
2)Concentrated organic manures
1)BULKY ORGANIC MANURES:
– FARM YARD MANURE(FYM): Decomposed mixture of dung and urine of farm animals along with litter and left over material from roughages or fodder fed to the cattle.
-COMPOST: Composting is the process of reducing vegetable and animal refuse( rural and urban) except dung to a quickly utilisable condition for improving and maintaining soil fertility and decomposed material is called Compost.
– NIGHT SOIL ( or poudrette):
Night soil is human excreta, both soild and liquid.
-SEWAGE AND SLUDGE:
The solid portion in the sewage is called sludge and liquid portion is Sewage water.
– SHEEP AND GOAT MANURE:
Sweeping of sheep and goat sheds are placed in pits for decomposition and it is applied later to the field.
Litter is the straw peat,Sawdust,dry leaves etc.are used as bedding Material for farm animals and birds.
Green undercomposed plant material used as manure is called green manure.it is obtained in two ways
*Green leaf manuring
B)CONCENTRATED ORGANIC MANURES:
– Bird guano: 7-8% N,11-14%P2O5 and 2-3%K2O
– Fish guano: 7%N and 8% P2O5
– Fish manure : 4-20% N,3-9% P2O5 and 0.3-1.5% K2O
-Raw bonemeal: 3-4% N,20-25%P2O5
– Steamed bone meal: 1-2% N, 25-30% P2O5
– Blood meal: 13-20%N.rich in Iron
-Meat meal:,8-9% N and 7% P2O5
-Calcined bone: 37%P2O5
Sunflower cake: 7-8% N
Groundnut cake: 7.2% N, cotton cake : 6.5% N.