INTRODUCTION: AS we all know that MUSHROOMS are naturally made by the nature.
Which is very nutrient content depending upon the types of species, nearly 20,000 species of mushroom are forming, and they have 90% of water and highly saprophytic nutrient values.
Organisms that die and decay organic matter are used as food in saprophytic this process uses components contained in dead and decaying materials for cellular needs. Those all are forming by the fungi and the size of their mushroom fruiting bodies can vary from a few millimeters in length all the way to a meter. Mostly it will grow in spring season favorable factors like snow melt and temperature.

HISTORY: It is early cultivation of mushroom was in ASIA. China the year 600AD. In Europe, the first cultivated mushroom was introduction in France in the 17th century. In 1900, the mushroom was first grown in the United States of America.

HEALTH BENEFITS: Mostly it will depend on types of species. They are rich in protein and due to their exposure to sunlight, mushrooms are natural resources. They are non- animals’ source of vitamin D2 it helps in the absorption of calcium in your body.
Mushrooms are also known to have cancer-fighting properties and help in reducing blood sugar levels and improve in sullen resistance. Niacin is good for the digestive system and for maintaining healthy skin.
 Now a days most people are using to eating cultivated mushroom due to lack of wild mushroom.
 So many of farmer’s are showing interest to do fungiculture. Which is called as growing of mushrooms.
 Fungiculture is different and technology of growing mushrooms using plants, animals, and industrial waste.
 It is the process of composting ,spawning ,casting ,pinning ,harvesting ,preservation like freezing ,drying ,canning ,vacuum cooling etc….

According to the humans psychology all are thinking wild mushrooms have more nutrition values ,But it is not the fact according to scientific research because all mushroom are cultivated by the modified way. But in the wild mushrooms provide less energy/ calories than cultivated mushrooms as they contain higher contents of protein and lower fat
concentrations. At the same time, cultivated mushrooms seem to have higher concentration of sugars. When it compared to fatty acids, wild mushrooms appear to contain lower values of monounsaturated fatty acids but also higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
More other studies are showing that mushrooms contain my fibers, vitamins, minerals, and all nine essential amino acids.

White-fungi (rot Fu Basidiomycetes) produce various extracellular enzymes, such as laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP).Laccase belongs to the family of multicopper that catalyzes the oxidation of various aromatic substances. The catalyzation of oxidation of various aromatic substances is used to identify Laccase-
producing mushrooms.

Here, ABTS is used for entry reported measuring Laccase. The activity is indicated by a green color. Mushroom species are most frequas Laccase and manganese peroxidase producers and least frequently reported as lignin peroxidase producers.
For the wild mushrooms, a wide range of enzyme activity could be found.
For Laccase ranging from 2 to 942 U/I.
For Manganese peroxidase ranging from 24 to 79 U/I.
And for Lignin peroxidase ranging from 3 to 7 U/I.
Whereas cultivated mushrooms showed the following enzyme activities.
For Laccase ranging from 2 to 62 U/I.
For Manganese peroxidase ranging from 4 to 166 U/I.
And for Lignin peroxidase ranging from 0.7 to 18 U/I.
These different enzyme activities stem from their third difference – their genetic profiles.
For the cultivated mushrooms the genetics are constantly modified to improve
 the Growth rate
 Thickness
 Color
 Texture
 Aroma
 Yield
 BE
by, for example, hybridization.
The authors could show that using hybridization of two oyster mushroom species ‘pleurotus pulmonarius’ and ‘pleurotus citrinopileatus’ improved,for example,the mycelium growth rate,texture,and biological efficiency while keeping a mild aroma.

U Yeshwanth Kumar

By U Yeshwanth Kumar

I am Yeshwanth Kumar from Hindupur, Andhra Pradesh. I'm currently pursuing Bsc Hons Agriculture final year at Lovely professional University.

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