Organic farming also known as ecological farming or biological farming,is an agricultural system that uses fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting.It originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organicagricultureaccountsfor70millionhectares(170millionacres)globally,withoverhalfof that total in Australia. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organizations today. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally-occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances.For instance,naturally-occurringpesticides such as pyrethrin are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewagesludge,plant growth regulators,hormones, are prohibited. Organic farming advocates claim advantagesinsustainability,openness,self-sufficiency,autonomyandindependence,health,foodsecurity,and foodsafety.
Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations,based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of OrganicAgriculture Movements(IFOAM), an international umbrella organizationfor organic farming organizations established in 1972.Organic agriculture can be defined as “an integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity while, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones”.